Washington, capital of the United States of America
DC “District of Columbia” – Founded on July 16, 1790 (00/00)
He was voted, by the U.S. Congress, for Lafayette the sum of $200,000 and a township of land in Tallahassee, Florida, to be known as the Lafayette Land Grant. (Go to Florida for more information)
TOPIC I (T1) – OUTDOOR SCULPTURES IN WASHINGTON, DC
Statues, Busts, Monuments, Memorials… Historic Parks and Places…
Lafayette Square (or Park) in front of the White House
It was originally part of the White House grounds (separated from the Executive Mansion in 1804 when is built Pennsylvania Avenue through the park).
The park’s name was changed to Lafayette Square in 1824 to honor the Marquis. In the park are five statues (Clark Mills, General Marquis Gilbert de Lafayette, Major General Comte Jean de Rochambeau, Thaddeus Kosciuszko, Major General Baron Frederich Wilhelm von Steuben.
Major General Marquis Gilbert de Lafayette, Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C. (1891). By Alexandre Falguière and Antonin Mercié, 1891
TOPIC II (T2) – MANY PLACES…
Town, city, village, county, township …may refer or are named for
General Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, or La Grange « Home » of Lafayette
(No places named for Lafayette found )
TOPIC III (T3) – STREETS, ROADS, SQUARES…
Parks, places, sites …
PLUS in Washington, DC
Hotel Sofitel Washington
– Lafayette Square
Lafayette Elementary School
The Lafayette condo at Penn Quarter
TOPIC IV (T4) – INDOOR OBJECTS, MUSEUMS …
Pictures, busts, Exhibitions …
A lighthouse clock to commemorate the visit of the Marquis to the U. S. White House library -By made by Simon Willard
Portrait of Lafayette in US House of Representatives.
By Dutch-French artist Ary Sheffer, 1824. Lafayette enjoyed the painting so much that he distributed copies of it wherever he stopped during his stay.
TOPIC V (T5) – LAFAYETTE AND FRANCE
THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
They played a key role in the American Revolution (1765-1783)
and during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)
Between 1778 and 1783,
44 177 French soldiers and sailors fought aside the “American Insurgents”,
5 040 gave their lives for their independence.
Between 1776 and 1783, France spent 1.3 billion French pounds. A huge debt for the time that drained the Treasure of the Kingdom.
Road markers, places, objects…
The 13 Englis colonies
The 13 states involved: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts (South and North), New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia.
LAFAYETTE INVOLVEMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR
He enlisted as a volunteer without pay alongside the « Insurgents » of the 13 English colonies in America who declared independence unilaterally July 4, 1776
* Lafayette: First military campaign: from June 1777 to January 1779
* Lafayette: Back in France to plead the cause of the “Insurgents”: from February 1779 to March 1780
* Lafayette: Second military campaign: from April 1780 to December 1781
FRANCE INVOLVEMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Louis XVI – King of France and Navarre
1768-1777 – France secretly helps the American Insurgents
1768: Baron de Kalb a Bavarian-born French military, traveled to America on a covert mission (to determine the level of discontent among colonists) on behalf of France.
1775-1776-1777: France secretly sent military supplies. During these three years, France had been sent secretly to the American rebels over five million “livres tournois” (French pound) of aid.
1778-1782 – France officially and fully aids the American Insurgents
1778 (February) – Franco American Treaty
(Later Spain (in 1779) and Dutch (in 1780) became allies of France)
*1778-1779 – 1st “French Expedition” under Comte d’Estaing
*1780-1781-1782- 2nd “French Expedition” under Comte de Rochambeau
*1781- The French Navy under Comte de Grasse joins the Franco-American ground Forces in Yorktown, VA
(No involvement. The District of Columbia did not exist in 1765-1783)
(It was parts of Virginia and Maryland States)
TOPIC VI (T6) – LAFAYETTE VISIT (August 4 to December 22, 1784)
Road markers, places, objects…
The United States 1783-1803
In 1784, Lafayette visited America, where he enjoyed an enthusiastic welcome; he visited all the 13 states except Georgia.
(No visit. The District did not exist in 1784)
In 1784, Lafayette visited all the 13 States of America except Georgia, where he enjoyed an enthusiastic welcome.
Go to the States visited: Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts (South and North today Maine), New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia).
TOPIC VII (T7) – LAFAYETTE’S FAREWELL TOUR (1824-1825)
Road markers, places, objects…
The United States in 1825
The 24 states visited : Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine (ex-Massachusetts / North part), Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia. Plus Washington D.C.
(Arriving from Philadelphia PA)
• October 6 – Wilmington/Delaware
• October 12 –Lafayette arrives in Washington, DC
• October 15 – Spends the entire evening at Arlington House, although he returns to his hotel in Washington/D.C. at night
Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial,
formerly named the Custis-Lee Mansion,
• October 17 – Mount Vernon/Virginia
• October 18–19 – Petersburg/Virginia, for visit to Yorktown/Virginia
• October 19–22 – Williamsburg/Virginia
• October 22 – Norfolk/Virginia, Portsmouth/Virginia.
• October – Richmond/Virginia,
• November 4 –Monticello/Virginia (former President Thomas Jefferson).
• November 8 – Charlottesville/Virginia
• Early December – Lafayette stays in Washington, D.C.
This private house, today located at 301 S. Saint Asaph Street – Alexandria, Virginia is known as the « Lafayette House » as it is believed to be where General Lafayette spent time during his visit to Washington DC area (December 1824 and January 1825)
*Lafayette is in town, meeting several times with President James Monroe, as well as George Washington’s relatives.
*visiting the White House, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_House
Top: the northern facade with a columned portico facing Lafayette square
Bottom: the southern facade with a semi-circular portico facing The Ellipse
To commemorate Lafayette’s visit to the White House, a lighthouse clock is made by Simon Willard.
*Visiting the Navy Yard.
The Washington Navy Yard (WNY) is the former shipyard and ordnance plant of the United States Navy in Southeast Washington, DC. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U.S. Navy.
*December 8 and 9, 1825
.Lafayette makes official visits to the Senate and addresses the U.S. Congress at the House of Representatives.
*December 15 – Washington/D.C.– Lafayette is feted at the first commencement ceremony of the Columbian College in the District of Columbia (later renamed George Washington University). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbian_College_of_Arts_and_Sciences
• December 17 – Annapolis/Maryland (visits Fort Severn).
• December 24 – Frederick, Maryland. (« Jug Bridge » crossing the Monocacy River on the National Pike).
• January 1 – Washington/D.C. (Congress)
• January 19 – Baltimore to Norfolk and Richmond/Virginia
• January 31 – Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (Perseverance Lodge #21)
• Late July –Baltimore/Maryland, via Port Deposit and Havre de Grace, Maryland. Spends two days in Baltimore.
• Late August – Lafayette returns to Mount Vernon/Virginia
September 4 – The Marquis returns to the Washington, D.C area,
And attends a banquet stays at the new Alexandria plantation, Huntley Hall, the home of George Mason’s grandson. Today at 6918 Harrison Lane Alexandria, VA
Lafayette enjoyed several meals there and enjoyed the company of the Masons. He slept in the Upper Guestroom of the Plantation’s mansion, which has the nickname « The Lafayette Suite »
September 6 – Lafayette arrives in Washington, D.C., where he meets the new U.S. President John Quincy Adams, addresses a joint session of Congress
and celebrates his 68th birthday at a White House banquet with President Adams.
The Marquis de Lafayette was one of the first notable international guests of the White House. The square across Pennsylvania Avenue would later be named to commemorate Lafayette.
Lafayette leaves Washington D.C. and returns to France on the frigate USS Brandywine. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Brandywine
Launched on June 16, 1825, and christened by Sailing Master Marmaduke Dove, Brandywine was commissioned on August 25, 1825, Captain Charles Morris in command
After a stormy three weeks at sea, the warship arrived off Le Havre, France, early in October; and, following some initial trepidation about the government’s attitude toward Lafayette’s return to a France… Brandywine‘s passenger and her captain disembarked, the former to return home and the latter to tour the country for six months to study shipyards, ship design, and other naval matters.