The state joined the union on December 12, 1787 – State No 02/13
TOPIC I (T1) – OUTDOOR SCULPTURES IN PENNSYLVANIA
Statues, Busts, Monuments, Memorials… Historic Parks and Places…
(Valley Forge, Philadelphia, Easton, York)
Valley Forge, PA
Lafayette surveying the troops at Valley Forge
Lafayette winter quarter at Valley Forge (today)
The Marquis de La Fayette, who joined the Continental Army experienced his first action at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, where he was wounded and where he showed extreme courage under fire in leading an orderly retreat.
He spent most of December 1777 and January 1778 during the long and harsh winter, with George Washington and his Continental Army troops at their winter quarters at Valley Forge.
Statue of the Marquis de La Fayette
“1757-1834. A native of France. Devoted and faithful to the cause of American Independence General of the Continental Army. An indispensable ally of freedom. The statue can be found in the “Garden of Heroes”. By Raoul Josset (1947) at the west side of the Philadelphia Art Museum.
Two statues of Marquis de La Fayette are presented in the Lafayette College established here in 1826.
In front of the Colton Chapel in Lafayette College campus a bronze statue by Daniel Chester French.
At the College Ave. entrance to Lafayette College campus. On the Green in the background (donated by Wannamaker’s Department Store).
This Lafayette statue and the Scene of Lafayette’s Toast is an NRHP site located on old Lincoln Highway, called Rt. 462 in this area in front of Golden Plough Tavern (1741). The scene is marked by a pavement tablet at 157-9 W. Market St.
« At a dinner here in 1778, Lafayette is said to have proposed his memorable toast of fealty to Washington, thereby thwarting the ‘Conway Cabal’, led by General Gates and fellow conspirators, (1777-1778) who were plotting to unseat the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. »
The General Horatio Gates house (1751) was connected to the Golden Plough Tavern through a shared kitchen.
TOPIC II (T2) – MANY PLACES…
Town, city, village, county, township …may refer or are named for
General Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, or La Grange « Home » of Lafayette
Fayette, PA – a city
Fayette County, PA
South Fayette, PA – Township
Fayetteville, PA – a city
Lafayette, PA – Township
Lafayette Hill, PA
Lafayette Hill is a small unincorporated community in Whitemarsh Township, Montgomery County in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Lafayette Hill is located just west of Philadelphia’s Chestnut Hill neighborhood, and south of Plymouth Meeting. Lafayette Hill draws its name from the French General Marquis de Lafayette, who stayed there during the American Revolution. (For more information, scroll down to « Lafayette: First military campaign: from June 1777 to January 1779″)
TOPIC III (T3) – STREETS, ROADS, SQUARES, …
Parks, places, sites …
Harrisburg, PA – State Capital
Abington, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Avis, PA – Lafayette St.
Bensalem, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Bridgeville, PA – Lafayette St.
Bristol, PA – Lafayette St.
Bryn Mawr, PA – Lafayette Rd.
Coatesville, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Coatesville, PA – Lafayette Rd.
Collingdale, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Darby, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Doylestown, PA – Lafayette St.
Easton, PA – Lafayette St.
Fort Washington, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Gladwyne, PA – Lafayette Rd.
Kennett Square, PA – Lafayette St.
Lancaster, PA – Lafayette St.
Lansdale PA – Lafayette Rd.
Lebanon, PA – Lafayette St.
Mercersburg, PA – Lafayette Rd.
Merion Station, PA – Lafayette Rd.
Morrisville, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Newtown, PA – Lafayette St.
Norristown, PA – Lafayette St.
Oreland, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Palmerton, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Pittsburgh, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Prospect Park, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Reading, PA – Lafayette St.
Scranton, PA – Lafayette St.
Sharon, PA – Lafayette Ave.
Tamaqua, PA – Lafayette St.
Vandergrift, PA – Lafayette St.
Wayne, PA – Lafayette Rd.
West Chester, PA – General Lafayette Blvd.
West Chester, PA – Lafayette St.
Whitemarsh, PA- Lafayette Ave.
Yardley, PA – Lafayette Ave.
York, PA – Lafayette St.
TOPIC IV (T4) – INDOOR OBJECTS, MUSEUMS …
Pictures, busts, Exhibitions …
Portrait of Lafayette. Oil on canvas, 1826-1833. By Thomas Sully (American, 1783-1872).Courtesy of Lafayette College Art Collection, Easton, PA, 1987
Uniontown, PA is a city in Fayette County, PA – 46 miles southeast of Pittsburgh
Hand sculpted eight-foot wooden statue by David Gilmour Blythe c1850
Fayette County Building and Court House, Uniontown, PA
TOPIC V (T5) – LAFAYETTE AND FRANCE
THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
They played a key role in the American Revolution (1765-1783)
and during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)
Between 1778 and 1783,
44 177 French soldiers and sailors fought aside the “American Insurgents”,
5 040 gave their life for their independence.
Road markers, places, objects…
The 13 English colonies
The 13 states involved: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts (South and North), New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia.
LAFAYETTE INVOLVEMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR
He enlisted as a volunteer without pay alongside the « Insurgents » of the 13 English colonies in America who declared independence unilaterally July 4, 1776
*Lafayette: First military campaign: from June 1777 to January 1779
Brandywine, PA – September 11, 1777
September 11, 1777 – The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the Continental army and the British army. More troops fought at Brandywine than any other battle of the American Revolution. It was also the longest single-day battle of the war, with continuous fighting for 11 hours. The British Army defeated the Continental Army.
Lafayette shot in the leg at the Battle of Brandywine
The American retreat was well-organized, largely due to the efforts of Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, who, although wounded, created a rallying point that allowed for a more orderly retreat before being treated for his wound. Lafayette was shot in the leg.
Lafayette Hill, PA /Barren Hill, PA
Prior to general decampment from Valley Forge in the spring of 1778, George Washington dispatched an estimated 2200 troops under the command of Marquis de Lafayette to act as a defensive screen and to conduct reconnaissance of the British army, which had garrisoned in Philadelphia for the winter. The two forces had a brief engagement at nearby Barren Hill.
Lafayette marker located on the Masonic Village green, Lafayette Hill
Lafayette marker at Saint Peter’s Church Cemetery, Barren Hill
* Lafayette: Back in France to plead the cause of the “Insurgents”: from February 1779 to March 1780
* Lafayette: Second military campaign: from April 1780 to December 1781
FRANCE INVOLVEMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Louis XVI – King of France and Navarre
1768-1777 – France secretly helps the American Insurgents
1768: Baron de Kalb a Bavarian-born French military, traveled to America on a covert mission (to determine the level of discontent among colonists) on behalf of France.
1775-1776-1777: France secretly sent military supplies. During these three years, France had been sent secretly to the American rebels over five million “livres” of aid.
1778-1782 – France officially and fully aids the American Insurgents
1778 (February) – Franco American Treaty
(Later Spain (in 1779) and Dutch (in 1780) became allies of France)
1778-1779 – 1st “French Expedition” under Comte d’Estaing
1780-1781-1782- 2nd “French Expedition” under Comte de Rochambeau
1781- The French Navy under Comte de Grasse joins the Franco-American ground Forces in Yorktown, VA
TOPIC VI (T6) – LAFAYETTE VISIT (August 4 to December 22, 1784)
Road markers, places, objects…
The United States 1783-1803
In 1784, Lafayette visited America, where he enjoyed an enthusiastic welcome; he visited all the states except Georgia.
Lafayette urged the Pennsylvania Legislature to help form a federal union (the states were then bound by the Articles of Confederation).
TOPIC VII (T7) – LAFAYETTE’S FAREWELL TOUR (1824-1825)
Road markers, places, objects…
The United States in 1825
The 24 states visited : Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine (ex-Massachusetts / North part), Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia. Plus Washington D.C.
• July 13 – Lafayette leaves France.
• August 15 – Staten Island, NY
• August 16 – New York City landing at Castle Garden.
• August 20 –New York City to Bridgeport, CT via (Harlem NYC, New Rochelle, and in Connecticut Greenwich (Byram Bridge and Putnam Hill), Stamford, Norwalk, Saugatuck (Westport) and Fairfield.
From August 21 to 24, 1824 – New Haven, CT Providence RI Stoughton, MA, and Boston, MA
(September 4 – Hartford and Middletown, CT
• September 5 – New York City, NY
• September 11 –New York City, NY
• September 16 -Poughkeepsie, NY
• September 24 -Newburgh, NY
September 28, 1824; Lafayette is in Philadelphia, PA. Heading to Delaware
General La Fayette arrival at Independence Hall
- January 31, 1825 – Lafayette visits Perseverance Lodge #21 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Lafayette visits Perseverance Lodge #21, Harrisburg
Lafayette set off on the southern leg of his tour.
- February 23, 1825 -Because the route from Richmond, VA to Raleigh, NC was by carriage over poor roads, the traveling party was obliged to take the sandy « Lower Road » by Suffolk, VA, and Halifax, NC.
- February 25 — « On February 25, 1825, Lafayette granted Poulson’s Advertiser, one of Philadelphia’s leading newspapers, an interview. Lafayette recalled receiving his wound at Brandywine »
May 25, 1825 – The Marquis de La Fayette visited Washington, PA and dined at the George Washington Hotel’s Pioneer Grill, and stayed at the nearby Globe Inn.
A postcard celebrating the 1825 visit of LaFayette in the town (bearing a painting by Malcolm Parcell).
• May 29 – Visits Braddock, PA
• May 30–31 –Stays in Pittsburgh, PA
• June 1 –Arrives Butler, PA and stays overnight
On May 29, 1825, Lafayette visits the town
May 30–31 –Lafayette stays in the town
June 1, 1825, Lafayette arrives in town and stays overnight
• June 4 – Buffalo, NY at Lafayette Square. (Lafayette follows Erie Canal from Buffalo, NY to Rochester, NY across New York State )
• June 7 – Rochester, NY.
• July 14 – Morristown, NJ.
• July 15 – Bottle Hill, NJ (now Madison) on his way to Springfield, NJ.
• July 20 – Lafayette visits Germantown, PA and Chestnut Hill, PA (Philadelphia)
Germantown / Chestnut Hill, PA
(a neighborhood in the Northwest Philadelphia section of the city of Philadelphia, PA)
On July 20 – Lafayette visits the area
• July 25 –Lafayette again visits Wilmington, DE.
• July 26, 1825 – Lafayette departs Chester, PA, for the Brandywine Battlefield, ending the day in West Chester, PA
July 26, 1825, Lafayette departs for the Brandywine Battlefield
Brandywine Battlefield, PA
July 26, 1825, Lafayette visits the battlefield
Monument to Lafayette and Pulaski
at Birmingham-Lafayette Cemetery / Also known as Birmingham Meetinghouse Cemetery
1245 Birmingham Road – West Chester
West Chester, PA
July 26, 1825, Lafayette end the day in the town
July 27 – Departs West Chester, PA for Lancaster, PA.
July 27 –Lafayette arrives Lancaster, PA. Heading to Maryland
Late July –Baltimore/Maryland, via Port Deposit and Havre de Grace, Maryland. Spends two days in Baltimore.
Late August – Lafayette returns to Mount Vernon/Virginia
September 1825September 6 – Washington, D.C.
September 7 –
Lafayette leaves Washington and returns to France on the frigate USS Brandywine.